Windows 10 Mobile
Windows 10 Mobile is the mobile version of the Windows 10 operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows 10 Mobile succeeds Windows Phone 8.1, and is designed for smartphones and touch tablets with a screen diagonal less than 8 inches, running on ARM architectures, as well as IA-32. Windows 10 mobile is available since March 17, 2016 on certain Lumia models.
History of the system
These operating systems (OS) allow Microsoft software such as Microsoft Office or Windows Live Messenger to run on a phone.
One of the uses is to be able to receive emails in real time, which makes Windows Mobile a direct competitor of RIM’s BlackBerry. However, at the end of 2005, the Symbian OS still equips more than 50% of smartphones. In 2008, Microsoft had sold less than twenty million Windows Mobile licenses to manufacturers of personal assistant (PDA).
In 2010, this operating system was in decline, largely competing with the iPhone, Blackberry and Android. From June 2010, the arrival of Bada, the Samsung OS reinforces Microsoft’s decline in smartphones while Nokia will relaunch with Symbian³ and Meego at the end of the year.
Finally in 2011, Nokia adopted Windows Phone as the main operating system for its future smartphones.
Although it is still designed on the CE kernel, Windows Phone 7 is much more intuitive than Windows Mobile 6. It is used via finger navigation, and has a completely new interface.
However in 2012, Microsoft is already working on a unification between Windows and Windows Mobile. Windows Phone 8 therefore changes the kernel for the NT kernel, i.e. the same as Windows 8.
Unification will take shape in 2015 with the arrival of Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile, which have a completely identical base and can run the same applications, provided they are universal.
Windows CE (officially named Windows Embedded Compact since version 6.0 – codenamed “Yamazaki”) 1,2, sometimes abbreviated WinCE, is a variation of Windows for embedded systems and other minimalist systems, used in particular in pocket PCs or Handheld. It uses a kernel distinct from other Windows rather than a light version and supports Intel x86 and similar processor architectures, MIPS (up to CE 3.0), ARM and also Hitachi SH.
Windows CE is a branch of OS apart, independent of the NT family in particular. It should not be confused with the Windows XP Embedded offer which is a derivation, for the embedded, of the NT / XP family available only for x86 architecture with the Windows CE offer which is available for x86, ARM, SH and MIPS.
The official release of the latest version, Windows Embedded CE 6.0, took place on November 1, 2006. An R2 version has been available since early 2007.
Windows CE is optimized for devices with low storage capacity – the kernel can run on less than one megabyte of RAM. Systems are often produced without a storage disk and can be thought of so that they cannot be extended (for example, the system can be written in ROM). Windows CE meets the definition of a real-time operating system. It supports 256 priority levels and proceeds by priority inheritance to avoid problems of priority reversal. Unlike UNIX-like systems, the basic unit of execution is the thread to obtain simpler and faster programs in competition.
Microsoft has indicated that “CE” is not an acronym, but many people believe it means “Consumer Electronics” or “Compact Edition”. The first version, nicknamed “Pegasus”, offered a graphical interface similar to other Windows as well as a certain number of Microsoft software, all reduced in storage capacity, memory and speed.
Windows CE has since evolved – according to Microsoft documents – into a component-based, embedded, real-time operating system. It is no longer just for computers holding hands. Many platforms are based on the heart of the Windows CE system such as Microsoft’s Handheld PC, Pocket PC, Pocket PC 2002 and Smartphone 2002.
History and versions
1.0: Windows CE1 was released for the first time in 1996 (codenamed “Pegasus”). This version did not offer current system functionalities, in particular in terms of scheduling and memory management.
2.0, 2.11, 2.12: versions based on architecture 1.0. Until version 2.12 the scheduling was based on a system with 8 levels of variable priorities. Windows CE was therefore not yet a real-time eligible system.
3.0: the first technological breakthrough took place with CE 3.0 in 1999 with the integration of a preemptive scheduler with 256 levels of fixed priorities making Windows CE eligible as a real-time system. Windows CE 3.0 also marks the appearance of graphical tools for system and application development.
4.0, 4.1, 4.2: releases between 2001 and 2003, support for enhanced functionalities (communication, media, etc.) and improvement of development tools
5.0: released at the end of 2004, the principle of memory management begins to become limited for highly multimedia-oriented systems and in particular for consumer devices running Windows CE, namely pocket PCs and Smartphones. Consideration is underway for a new memory architecture, however no major modification is made on this version. Windows CE 5.0 represents an industrial system whose architecture has been stabilized for seven years.
6.0: Windows Embedded CE 6.0 marks the second technological breakthrough in this family of OSes. This time the memory architecture is revised to offer support for more than 32,000 processes, each with 2 GB of addressable space. As a reminder, up to CE 5.0 the limits were 32 processes with 32 MB of addressable space. This release marks the start of a new cycle for system architecture.